Born on 30th November 1961 in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Father, Dr. B.N. Sharma, apart from being known as a well-established agriculturalist, was also a renowned professor at Jabalpur University and, subsequently, the Vice Chancellor of Barkatullah University, Bhopal. Mother Smt. Shanti Sharma was the Principal of Maharani Lakshmibai Higher Secondary School and also worked as a District Education Officer at Jabalpur before retirement. Started schooling at Christ Church Boys Higher Secondary School and passed 10th standard and 12th standard from Central School, Jabalpur. Enrolled as a student of Bachelor of Science in 1979 at Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar. Secured a Bachelor of Science degree in the year 1981 with distinction in three subjects.
Awarded National Merit Scholarship for Post-Graduate Studies. Enrolled as a student of law at Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar in 1981. Graduated on top of the class and got an LL.B. degree in 1984 with three university Gold Medals. Enrolled as an advocate on 1st September 1984. Practised in Constitutional, Service, Civil and Criminal matters before the High Court of Madhya Pradesh at Jabalpur. Was appointed Additional Central Government Counsel on 28th May 1993 and was appointed senior panel counsel by the Government of India on 28th June 2004. In 2003, he was designated as a Senior Advocate by the High Court of Madhya Pradesh at the young age of 42, being one of the youngest senior advocates of the Madhya Pradesh High Court.
Elevated as an Additional Judge of Madhya Pradesh High Court on 18th January 2008. Appointed as a Permanent Judge on 15th January 2010. Justice S.C. Sharma is an avid reader and is also known for his contributions to various Universities. He is associated with National Law universities. He is also on the Advisory Board of the National Law Institute University, Bhopal and the India International University of Legal Education and Research, Goa and has published many research articles and papers.
Transferred to Karnataka High Court as Judge on 31st December 2020 and took an oath on 4th January 2021. He was later appointed as Acting Chief Justice of Karnataka High Court on 31st August 2021. He was elevated as Chief Justice of Telangana High Court on 11th October 2021 and transferred to Delhi High Court as Chief Justice and took the oath of office on 28th June 2022.